Sociology Test 3
one Dimensional view of power
we see power at work when 1 party prevails in a conflict
The one-dimensional view of power is easily discernible in relationships between...
2+ individuals in conflict
Exercising power by breaking the rules of the game...
Doesnt always work because threats and bribes fail
How do sociologists view the use of force in sustaining power?
The use of force is failed power
What dimension of power does the power holder prevent subordinates from raising issues that challenge power holders' power?
Presidents engage in... by focusing on topics that they believe are most important
Sociologists define status as...
the prestige accorded to individuals and to important social or economic roles
Trying to look busy in front of your boss is an example of...
Three dimensional view of power
What is not necessary in the three dimensional view of power?
Conflict is not necessary for power to exist
The complete array of major political institutions of any society is known as
Why is the image of the "invisible hand" in Adam Smith's analysis of capitalism said to be misleading?
For markets to function properly, rules must be enforced by the state when violated
Tax and transfer policies govern the...
Distribution of income and wealth
Social Security, health & unemployment insurance, and welfare comprise the
Big business needs security to make the kinds of investments that create jobs and produce economic growth, according to...
the business confidence theory
Social Security & other new deal programs were opposed by
most wealthy americans and many business interests
The new deal programs were adopted under the administration of
Franklin D Roosevelt
Medicare is health insurance for everyone...
In 2007, the top 1% of the U.S. households received ____% of all income
In 2007, the top 10% of U.S. households received ___% of all income
It is better to be rich in the United States than other similar high-income countries around the world, mostly because the United States...
has a progressive tax system
__________ provides an obvious and plausible explanation as to why income and wealth in the U.S. have become so concentrated at the top.
The tax system
What change in the U.S. tax code has been enacted in recent decades, disproportionately benefiting the wealthy?
Reduction in the capital gains tax rate
Who highlighted the extent of tax loopholes for the wealthiest Americans?
Mitt Romney paid less than ___% of his income in federal taxes
Since the end of WWII, the trend in the corporate tax rate has been _____________ relative to shifts in the entire economy
Which president attempted to close some of the loopholes that GE was using to avoid corporate income taxes?
Which company paid no corporate income tax in 2010?
General Electric (GE)
Major corporations that earn tax credits can use them_________
to lavish pay and other perks on their top managers
Poverty, crime, drug abuse, and racism are examples of
What country does the least to reduce poverty?
The United States
What is the system of elections in which seats in a legislature are divided up based on the percentage of the vote received?
What does a PAC do?
collect political donations
Emily's List is an organization that works to...
elect prochoice Democratic women
What exemplifies the "conservative egalitarian label"
Americans want to help the poor but do not want to pay higher taxes
The estate tax can be described as...
the tax that heirs, other than spouses, pay when left money from an estate
Why is it difficult for third party candidates to grain traction in the United States?
The U.S. system gives the candidate with the most votes the seat outright
The primary difference between capitalism and socialism is __________
a difference in how property is owned and controlled
________ is an economic system based on private property and market exchange
an economic system where the gov't owns property and controls production
Which of the following is the clearest example of the pervasiveness of markets in the intimate spaces of people's lives?
the market for help naming children
The rational-choice perspective of markets assumes that ___________
individuals make decisions that they think will improve their well being
According to sociologists, what does the rational-choice of markets overlook?
concerns and considerations about social forces
The sociological study of markets focuses on which factor, or combination of factors, to explain how markets work?
social networks, power, and culture
Why do markets need social ties?
To maintain levels of trust necessary to carry out economic transactions
Auditing firms often face problems of conflict of interest and resource dependency because___________
auditors are paid by the very companies whose books they are required to validate
Insider trading is an example of a
formal market rule
When the March of Dimes changed its mission from fighting polio to fighting birth defects, it exhibited what common organizational feature?
Who provided the most influential description and analysis of bureaucratic organizations?
The better an organization matched its initial environment, ____________
the stronger its structural inertia
Organizational isomorphism is a concept used by sociologists to explain why organizations in the same field tend to become ______ over time
Growth of specialization in the kinds of jobs people hold _______________
has continued right up to the present
A series of experiments conducted in the 1920s and 1930s with different teams of workers to see what factors might induce them to produce more output were called the _____________
The overall pattern of job growth over time suggests that there has been a long-term shift towards jobs that require ______________
more skill and more education
Which of the following job skills is more easily measured than the others?
measuring a manufacturing process
Increasingly the large assembly line factories, in which an individual worker performs a single task is being replaced by workplaces where cooperation among workers is encouraged and ____________
jobs are more interchangable and interconnected
In terms of job satisfaction, people tend to rate jobs as better when they ____________
feel trusted by their employer
___________ refers to how much a particular job allows workers to control their activity
satisfaction in work performed is invariably lower when _____________
actions are tightly controlled or monitored
In comparison with other countries with advanced economies, the United States has ____ workplace regulation and ___ labor unions
Unionization rates reached their peak in the United States in what years
Which of the following consequences of lean production has been more consistently harmful to workers than the others listed?
elimination of health and pension benefits
American workers are increasingly reliant on employers for ______ whereas workers in other rich countries are not
In a bureaucracy the ________ a position is, the more __________ that position has
higher up; authority
When new government regulations are passed an organization will most likely engage in ______ isomorphism to meet regulatory standards, and, they may use ________ isomorphism to go about making specific changes
One might argue that the decline of ________ in the united states encouraged ___________
unionization; the use of lean production methods
Bureaucracies often stifle __________, but improve __________
At the time of its uprising, the industrial revolution changed the nature of ___________ in society
the division of labor